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Of either species and various crew complement. They are used to charge solid foot, to break through gateways and to block mounted troops, whose frightened horses are reluctant to close with them. They can most easily be killed by artillery or the continued showers of missiles of light troops.


Representing all those noble or heavy horsemen of high morale that charge at first instance without shooting, with the intention of breaking through and destroying enemy by the sheer weight and impetus. The impetuous charge which enables them to sweep away lesser cavalry and all but the stoutest foot is also their Achilles' heel, leading them to be destroyed by massed longbow men or by light horse too rashly pursued, where light cavalry would have pulled off earlier.


Representing the majority of ancient horsemen, usually partially armoured, combining or following close range javelin or bow shooting with controlled charges. their shooting is more intense than that of light horse, often using circulating formations or halted rapid archery techniques to concentrate missiles in place and time, and may force enemy foot to halt or recoil.

Light Horse(LH)

Including all riders who skirmish in dispersed swarms evading enemy charges.


representing all close formation infantry fighting with spears in a rigid shield wall.


including all those close fighting infantry primarily skilled in fencing individually with swords or heavier cutting or cut and thrust weapons, sometimes supplemented by hand-hurled weapons.


including all irregular foot that rely on an impetuous and ferocious charge to sweep away foot, rather than on individual skill.


representing foot able to fight individually hand to hand and to skirmish but emphasising mobility in difficult terrain rather than cohesion or aggression.


representing foot who fight in formed bodies by shooting collectively with missiles shot at longer than psiloi, often in volleys at command, and who rely on dense shooting, hand to hand weapons, personally prepared obstacles or accompanying pavise bearers for survival at close quarters instead of skirmishing or evasion, or who are packed too tightly to skirmish effectively.


including all dispersed skirmishers on foot shooting individually with javelin, sling, staff sling, bow, crossbow or handgun, who fight in a loose swarm hanging around enemy foot, running away when charged. also all shooters supporting primarily close combat infantry formations from rear ranks. they are useful to delay enemy, occupy difficult terrain or support friends, but not where quick results are needed or unsupported in the open against cavalry.


whether gunpowder, torsion, counterweight or powered by men pulling ropes.

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